These are the species of fern, moss, and horsetail we found in the forest.
Douglas Neckera (Neckera douglasii)
Moss is stringy and almost furry looking
The colours go from green to light green (the most exposed parts of the moss are usually light green)
Length can vary from around 8-15cm long
Despite being stringy, the moss is rather thick
Typically grows downwards
Taxonomy: Douglas Neckera
We are only about 85% sure that this is Douglas Neckera, but what helped us identify that it could be is the stringiness of the moss. We located this moss right up along a tree trunk near a stream. Douglas Neckera is extremely rich in coastal rainforests and usually grows off of trunks and branches. The species was named after a Scottish plant explorer named David Douglas. Uses:
Douglas neckera was used as a herb
Crane's Bill (Atrichum selwynii)
For colours, it goes from dark green and light green
Sizes ranged from 2.5mm-7mm
Leafs don't follow a certain pattern, may vary in sizes and shapes
Leafs start to brown with age or lack of moisture
We identified the Crane's Bill as it was not like the rest of the mosses we encountered. The texture was noticeably different and did not have the same shape as most other mosses. We had stumbled upon it on a tree trunk beside a stream, a very moist environment. The species name is in honour of A.R.C. Selwyn, the director of the Geological Survey of Canada. Uses:
Medicinal uses for stomach flu's
Used as an eye wash
Used as an herb
Menzies Neckera(Metaneckera menziesii)
Colours of the moss vary from dark green to light green
Compounds of moss grown on branches
Moss is grown quite narrow and diamond shaped
Taxonomy: Menzies Neckera
Just like the last moss, we were not exactly 100% sure this was Menzies Neckera. Although, we are pretty firm to believe it is because of its distinct diamond shape and how the tips seem to be flat at the ends compared to the other true mosses. It likes to grow on tree trunks and dry rocks under shade. The species was named after a Scottish surgeon, Archibald Menzies. Uses
Used spiritually by the First Nations People
Fairly tall fern reaches up to 50 to 180 cm.
Covered with ridges.
Have thumb-like shapes at the end of every frond
We have seen this fern mostly under trees and places that cut the sunlight to pieces.
We have observed that the sword fern was one of the most abundant fern in the park.
We came across to this fern pretty often while we were looking for other species. The ridges that cover the fern's fronds gives the name "Sword Fern" to the plant. History and Usage:
In spring, with no other food available, Quileute, Makah, Klallam, Squamish, Sechelt, Haida, and other Native American/First Nations peoples roasted, peeled and ate the rhizomes.
The plant is commonly used by florists and gardeners as a foliage ornamental.
Fronds do not have thumbs at the end unlike the most of the ferns.
Although the research we made says they grow up to 3 to 5 m the ones that we have seen were shorter than the actual heights.
Not as abundant as sword fern; fairly hard to find.
Rhizomes are spread and branched below ground surface.
Rhizomes are surrounded with hairs.
Unlike the most of the ferns Bracken Fern's fronds are made out of smaller leaves. That was the most distinctive part that took our attention while we were observing. History and Usage:
Bracken is a characteristic wild plant from UK.
It is used for making soap, animal bedding, tanning, glass making and fertilizer.
It is toxic to cattle, dogs, sheep, pigs and horses and is linked to cancers in humans.
The Giant Horsetail(Equisetum telmateia)
Around 1m long (They can grow longer than 1.5m long)
Tip of the plant is cone-like and dark brown
The stems are about 20mm thick
Branches are a darker green
The stem of the plant is of a lighter green
We came across the Giant Horsetail right along a stream. Horsetails stick near any moist to wet environments and are frequently found in coastal British Columbia. However, even though it is stated they are common in British Columbia, we only came across one horsetail so they may not be so abundant in the particular area we ventured.