These are the species of conifer we found in the forest.
Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii)
can grow 20–100 metres (70–330 ft) tall
Needles are flat with a pointed tip
Cones are 5 to 11 centimetres long
the bark is very thick with age and deeply grooved, with dark reddish-brown ridges.
Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir or Douglas-fir, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North American. One variety, the coast Douglas fir, grows along the Pacific Ocean from central British Columbia south to central California. A second variety, the Rocky Mountain Douglas fir, grows in the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south to Mexico. The tree is dominant in western Washington. It is extensively used for timber, worldwide.
Western Red Cedar, also called Pacific red cedar,giant or western arborvitae, giant cedar, or shinglewood, is a species of Thuja, an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae native to western North America. It is a large to very large tree, ranging up to 65 to 70 m tall and 3 to 4 m in trunk diameter, exceptionally even larger.
Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)
grows up to 70 metres tall and 2 metres
Needles are light green to bluish-green, stiff, and sharp
Seed cones are reddish- to yellowish-brown
The bark is very thin, brown or purplish grey, and breaks up into small scales.
Sitka spruce is native to the west coast of North America. Its roots are used by aboriginal people to make hats, baskets, ropes and fishing lines. Sitka spruce is of major importance in forestry for timber and paper production. The inner bark of these tree contains vitamin C which the coastal people eat. Their woods are light, soft, strong and flexible which is used for general construction, ship building and plywood. The woods are also used in making pianos, violins, guitars and other musical instruments.
Unclassified Pine tree
Needles are long and thin and in clusters of more than 5
Cones are small and are 0.8-1.6 inches in length
The bark is very thick and scaly
The branches are very low
It is 30ft tall.
Ponderosa Pine (Yellow Pine)
needles can grow 12 to 28 centimeters long
needles are slender, with sharp points and sharply toothed edges.
Seed cones are narrowly oval when closed, 7 to 14 centimeters long
Bark(young) is blackish, rough, and scaly; Mature trees have very thick barks
Ponderosa pine is commonly used for light and medium construction like window frames and interior trim. It is also used to produce a variety of products including interior wall paneling, shelving, furniture, boxes and doors. Ponderosa has a long, deep root that can go deeper under the ground for moister soil and it also prevents the tree from falling from strong winds. The aboriginal people ate the seeds and inner bark of the ponderosa. They also mixed it with bear grease and used it as an ointment for sores and inflamed eyes.
Interesting fact: On a hot day, the bark of the Ponderosa pine smells like vanilla and when you break a young twig it smells somewhat like oranges.